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Written Imformation about SGNP
Biological Value:
The vegetation of this area ranges from littoral forests to western sub-tropical hill forests. The park is home to a number of endangered species of flora and fauna. Large numbers of vertebrate and invertebrate species belonging to various classes and orders are indicators of immense biological diversity of this area. Observations and checklists show that there are about 550 faunal species that are found in this area. Besides, this area is a natural home for many endangered faunal species. Recently tail less whip scorpion was seen in the Tulsi tunnel during a jungle trek organized by the Director on 06-10-2011 during Wildlife week celebration in October 2011.While orange breasted green pigean was also seen recently by some bird watchers A large number of species of trees are found within the SGNP Division. Some dominant species are Kadamba, teak, karanj, species of acacia, ziziphus, flame of the forest, red silk cotton. Karvi or Karvy, a flowering plant that flowers once in seven years, is also there in the Park.

Ecological Value:
This area acts as a carbon sink for Mumbai and Thane cities and veritably it is known as a “green lungs” of Mumbai and Thane. It protects the catchments of Tulsi and Vihar Lakes, that supply potable water to the metropolis of Mumbai and Thane.

Archaeological value:
The Kanheri Caves, located within the park, form a major point of interest. The caves are said to date from the 1st century BC to the 9th century AD and to had been occupied by a well organized Buddhist establishment of monks on an ancient trade route connecting a number of Indian sea-ports.There are total of 109 caves with most of the caves being chiseled in the volcanic basalt rock.; The small chambers are known as “Vihars” whereas the larger and deeper chambers are known as “Chaityas”.

Temperature:
After February there is a steady increase in temperature till May which is generally the hottest month. The mean daily maximum temperature in May is 33.30C and minimum temperature in May is 26.90C. Due to prevailing high humidity the weather during summer is very oppressive. On certain days the maximum temperature may occasionally go upto 400C. After the onset of the monsoon by about beginning of June, the weather becomes progressively cooler. But, towards the end of the southwest monsoon season, day temperature begins to increase slightly and a secondary maximum in day temperature is reached in November. Nights, however, become progressively cooler after the withdrawal of the monsoon. After November the day temperature also begins to decrease. January is generally the coldest month when mean daily maximum temperature is 29.10C; and minimum temperature is 19.40C. In the cold season, the minimum temperature occasionally drops down to about 100C. The highest maximum temperature recorded was 40.60C in 1955. The lowest minimum temperature recorded was 7.40C in 1962.

The vertebrate fauna of the area includes 43 species of Mammals, 250 species of birds, including the migratory land and water birds, 38 species of reptiles and 9 species of amphibians.



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